Ephesus - Greece
Ephesus was one of the most important Greek cities. The Ionians built it in the 10th century B.C., one of the four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves to be divided into during the ancient period; the other three were the Dorians, Aeolians, and Achaeans. Until the Roman Empire conquered the Aegean region of Anatolia, those lands were under the rule of the Pergamon Kingdom, another Greek kingdom founded in Anatolia. Even the word "Anatolia" is a Greek word that means "East" in English. The Roman Empire ruled Anatolia under the new name "Asia Minor," which described the same lands. However, the majority of the population and the language in Ephesus was always Greek until they lost the harbor because of the Meander River. The declaration of Istanbul as the new capital of the Roman Empire in the 4th century caused more than half of the city's population to migrate to this city.
Most tourists imagine Ephesus, the third biggest ancient city in the world, is located in modern Greece because of its Greek history. But the correct answer is Turkey, a modern country founded right after the 1st world war and the destruction of the Ottoman Empire.
Today, many Turkish citizens know Ephesus is one of the most important cities in Greek history, and they feel lucky to be located within the borders of modern Turkey.
During the period of the Ottoman Empire, the Turkish and Greek populations lived together and created many cultural phenomena that can be called common. Although the population change experienced with the establishment of modern Turkey has physically changed this unity, it does not change how deep and great the Greek civilization was historical. The Ancient City of Ephesus will continue to live on the borders of Turkey as one of the largest Greco-Roman cities in history and a UNESCO Historical Heritage Site.